By H. Myron Bromley
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Additional info for A grammar of Lower Grand Valley Dani
That is, [x] is only found after a tautosyllabic back vowel, with [ç] being found elsewhere. He feels that this tautosyllabic rather than tautomorphemic restriction (captured by the constraint *Aç]σ, which prohibits [ç] after a back vowel in the same syllable), necessarily accompanied by the restriction *[x] (described with no elaboration as “the segmental markedness constraint dispreferring [x]”, p. 210), is justiﬁed by a pronunciation, found with some speakers, of words like Masochist ‘masochist’ and parochial ‘parochial’ (in both of which the fricative in question begins a syllable) with a [ç] rather than [x] (p.
For them all cases of [ç] are the output of a default rule. It should be noted that this analysis assumes without discussion that the rules which ﬁll in redundant features (here [−back] in vowels) necessarily 38 WHOSE GERMAN? follow lexical phonological rules, an assumption which in fact needs to be tempered (cf. most recently Wiese 1996: 158–9 for German). And as I see it, the exclusion of [−back] as a possible environment would be a big loss for the rule. Where Jessen and Hall were able to capture directly the notion that [x] occurs after back vowels and [ç] occurs after front vowels, for Iverson and Salmons the latter fact, although phonetically true, is only indirectly derivable.
13 Lieber believes she can get around this problem by representing the diminutive suﬃx as containing a ﬂoating autosegmental feature [−back] preceding the underlying /x/, a feature which usually attaches to a vowel of the preceding stem (stems like Frau which do not allow this will be lexically marked, see p. 128, fn. 30), but which always serves as an environment for the creation of [ç]. I do not intend to deal here with Lieber’s use of ﬂoating autosegments in the treatment of umlaut, except to note that with other suﬃxes which usually cause umlaut, but sometimes do not (such as -lich), she posits two allomorphs, one with the ﬂoating autosegment [−back], one without (p.
A grammar of Lower Grand Valley Dani by H. Myron Bromley