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Additional resources for A Grammar of the Mongol Language
D. Groundhog means the same as woodchuck. Professor and bachelor differ in meaning. Precipitation is a more general term than drizzle . Dog and cat are incompatible with each other. These sentences are statements about so-called sense relations. , they are synonymous. The sense relation expressed is synonymy. Synonymy of simple words makes different sentences express the same meaning: (11) a. b. , if, and only if, they have the same meaning. If two sentences have the same meaning, they are also said to be paraphrases of each other.
Ight attendant, toilet cleaner vs. hygiene manager, garbage dump vs. recycling center, etc. This has been called semantic environmental pollution (semanti8 In cases like (10-d) readers may have doubts as to whether the purported sense relation is actually a matter of linguistic competence rather than, say, basic biological knowledge. We will brieﬂy return to this question in Chapter 8, Section 4. 20 Chapter 2. Lexical Semantics sche Umweltverschmutzung). Note that most of these terms are compounds.
Thus, the opposite of black is white, the opposite of slow is fast, etc. This relation is another sense relation (cf. 10 Any economical description of a semantic network will take advantage of the fact that we can reduce some sense relations to others. A particularly useful method for doing so is to describe sense relations between words by analyzing synonymous paraphrases. For example, what is the sense relation between brother and sister? One way of approaching the problem is by using the synonymous expressions male sibling and female sibling.
A Grammar of the Mongol Language by Chinggaltai